Coffee cupping is the method used to evaluate coffees all around the world. By tasting (cupping) coffees from various origins and processing methods, you'll enhance your tasting abilities and begin to establish a vocabulary that will allow you to more precisely explain what you're experiencing.
Cupping is an evaluative tool. It's a method of focusing on the many aspects of a coffee and analyzing what each coffee has to offer. Developing a palate is an important part of the coffee tasting process.